Infertility is an impairment in the ability to achieve pregnancy. There are multiple causes for infertility including male and female factors. In every society 1 in six couples is infertile. In 40% cases male 40% cases female and in 20% cases both male and female are responsible for infertility. It may severely affect the couples’ psychological harmony, sexual life and social function. Even in those societies which made family planning and birth control their official policy and the individual couple desiring a child but unable to conceive, one feels demeaned, deprived and bitter. Most childless couples must cope with difficult psychological, family and social problems. The couple may feel low self esteem, loss of self confidence, feeling of incompetence, a feeling of outcast, isolation, guilt, blame, fear, anger, bitterness and frustration. Most of the cultures still find concept of childless family unacceptable. Social stigma, personal regret and economic hardship are the rule for childless couples in many societies.
But there are a number of options of treatment for infertility. As a result of treatment, pregnancy rates can be significantly improved. The chance of becoming pregnant in a young couple with adequate frequency of intercourse is estimated to be 25% in 1 month, 70% by 6 months, and 90% by 1 year. The chance of becoming pregnant after this time frame is very low. As few as 5% of the couples that did not become pregnant in the first year will become pregnant by waiting an additional 6 to 12 months without treatment. Age has a significant impact on the chances of becoming pregnant as well. Women over age 35 will experience a reduction in their chances of becoming pregnant. These chances decline rapidly, therefore women should be informed of the potential hazards of delaying treatment. Some women loose their eggs early in life due to some genetic factors. They should complete their family as early as possible.
There are a number of causes for which any one of the couple or both of them may be incapable to procreate. Any factor which causes unavailability of sperm from male and ovum from female or prevent their union in right place or interferes implantation causes infertility. Causes of infertility are many and in some cases no specific cause can be find out and called unexplained infertility.

Female factors

Male factors



Tubal Factor


Cervical factor


Fibroid uterus





Retrograde ejaculation